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History of Clark Fork and Hope, Idaho

The Hope / Clark Fork area stretches along the banks of Pend Oreille Lake from the Pack River to the mouth of the Clark Fork River, the major waterways that feed the mighty Pend Oreille. Pend Oreille Lake is one of the largest freshwater bodies in the west with several islands near the Clark Fork Estuary, including the Hope Islands and the Hope Peninsula, Warren, Cottage, Pearl, Eagle, and Memaloose Islands, as well as the islands at the end of the Clark Fork River, called Clark Fork Flats, which includes Derr Island. There are three main peninsulas that penetrate the lake: Sunnyside, Hope Peninsula and Sagle. Sagle is actually more like an area around the lake, but it is nevertheless an adjoining main feature of Lake Pend Oreille.
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It is important to note that the stories of the two communities are closely linked to each other. They have a shared past of railways, mining, logging, and sports activities. More recently, both Lake Pend Oreille and the Clark Fork River have been a draw for tourists seeking the mountain / lake lifestyle. In recent years, the area has attracted national public attention, appearing in various broadcasts, in articles, and by developers. The most famous golf course in this northern part of Idaho, Hidden Lakes, was purchased by Jack Nicklaus, and is slated to open in 2009 as the Idaho Club. However, since the federal government and state own more than 70% of the land, growth has been measured.
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Glacial Floods and Pend Oreille Lake

The most prominent feature of Hope and Clark Fork, Idaho is Lake Pend Oreille. With 111 miles of shoreline and 148 square miles, it is one of the most outstanding lakes in North America and the fifth deepest in the country. Formed by cataclysmic flooding when the mile-high Ice Age ice dam broke over and over again, the land and lake features of Bonner County and western Montana to the Oregon coast were formed for these monumental floods. Only one of these floods was ten times the combined volume of all rivers on earth, with walls of water moving at super highway speeds. For more information on the Ice Age floods, visit the Ice Age Floods Institute.org
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Centuries before the white man discovered the region, the Kalispells and other Indian tribes, such as the Flatheads, inhabited northern Idaho. Visit Northern Idaho History The first white men to trade in northern Idaho were the intrepid adventurers “Big Finan” McDonald and the explorer and “earth geographer” David Thompson, who established the first permanent wooden structure in 1809 in the Hope Peninsula, taking advantage of Lake Pend Oreille and the Clark Fork River. This trading post, Kullyspell House, still stands like a stone building on the lakeshore. Kullyspell House is still on the peninsula, Idaho’s most historic home. It is located at the end of Kullyspell Road. Turning right onto David Thompson Road, you will pass several white houses on the left. This grouping of summer houses is the family retreat of the Kienholz family. Ed Kienholz is easily one of the most famous artists in our nation.

The first true transportation the region enjoyed was the steamboats of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which brought its first engine and hardware from Portland, building the 108-foot Mary Moody in 1866.

When railroads entered the area, the Northern Pacific Railroad built the 150-foot Henry Villard in 1883 to supply the men who laid the rails. Steamboats continued to be an integral part of transportation around Lake Pend Oreille until the 1930s. Later in the era, steamships became popular excursions, as did Pend Oreille Cruises today, and the Dignitaries staying at the Hope Hotel and other resorts would spend days on the water.

In 1864, Congress granted the North Pacific Railroad a charter to build a line from Lake Superior to Puget Sound on a route north of the 45th parallel. In 1872, the Clark Fork Pend Oreille route was chosen. With the railroad came the people who established the towns of Clark Fork and Hope.

Railroads rose to fame in the 1880s, when local construction began on the North Transcontinental Line in 1881. Trestle Creek, over a mile long, became the longest structure on the line. It was at this time that Hope became the center of railroad activities and the largest city in the county. Along with the Chinese Coolies, more than 4,000 rough and smart railway workers lived in a tent city along the Clark Fork River. Railroads brought people in, and the lumber industry, which began servicing rails and trains, became the stalwart of northern Idaho’s economy for the next 100 years.

Hope Story, Idaho

At first, Hope was just a stopping point along the railroad, but in 1890, the North Pacific moved its dividing point westward from Montana to the shores of Lake Pend Oreille. Hope was incorporated on July 17, 1891. East Hope was incorporated on June 28, 1902. Hope was a busy port in its early days. Steamboats crossed the lake carrying supplies and mail to mining sites around the shoreline before the roads were built. The ships were used to transport supplies down the Clark Fork River to Cabinet Gorge while the railroad was being built. The lake had long supported a fishing fleet, bringing in tons of fish every day. Populations were decimated by the introduction of the little krill. The federal government added these small shrimp in an attempt to increase fish stocks; The experiment had the opposite effect. The last few years have seen a small recovery in fish stocks, and Hope is now the center of good sport fishing.

Hope began to grow in 1882 when the North Pacific arrived and in 1900 established its Rock Mountain split point in the hillside town. Incorporated in 1903, the town was named in honor of the vet who cared for construction horses. A wise and kind man, Dr. Hope was widely respected. Hope was the largest city in the area during the 1880s, achieving prominence as the point of division of the Rocky Mountains on the line of the North Pacific. Engines spun in the great circular house, and the railway built shops, offices, and a “sham” there.

Hotel Jeannot, now known as Hotel Hope, was able to capitalize on this business with its location just above the depot, and with its tunnels that provide easy access for passengers to the hotel. Many say that the tunnels were used to entertain Chinese “coolees” who worked on the railways, who were not normally allowed in establishments serving locals and travelers.

In contrast to Hope’s early boom, Sandpoint grew slowly after the completion of the railroad. A visitor from 1883 found only 300 people in the city, and nine years later another traveler reported that “Sandpoint is made up of between three and four dozen rude shacks and perhaps a dozen stores.” The city experienced tremendous growth, however, after the turn of the century.

When the split point moved to Sandpoint, Hope began to decline. The Hope Hotel continued to attract people until the 1960s, in part because the picturesque setting of the city by Lake Pend Oreille attracted many tourists. Some of them featured: J.P. Morgan, Teddy Roosevelt, Gary Cooper and Bing Crosby.

The original Jeannot Hotel (Hotel Hope) was a wooden structure that burned down around 1886. It was then that Joseph M. Jeannot began his fireproof commercial building, which he shared with his brother Louis. He built one section at a time, and over the years completed the two-story, three-bay hotel in 1898. The rectangular building has two full floors on two separate sections of the basement. The facade is divided into three approximately equal bays that vary in design and construction materials, indicating that the hotel was built in sections over a period of years. This theory collaborated through the analysis of the structure during the restoration, as well as through oral stories. The first section that was built was the first story of the East Bay with its random rock granite masonry walls with bead joints. Then came the first story of the central bay with its lower poured concrete walls. After this, or possibly built at the same time, was the second floor of red brick above the center and the bays to the east. The west bay was the last to be built, either once or in two stages. The first floor is poured concrete with the second floor red brick.

Several businesses have occupied the building over the years, including a lounge, a restaurant, a general store, a meat market, and even a post office. The domed meat cooler adjoining the west basement was likely built when Louis ran his general store and meat market in the period from 1895 to 1897. The Hope Hotel is still a testament to the times.

The J. M. Jeannot Hotel and Lounge were not his sole business interests. He was also involved in mining and had several claims at Pend Oreille Lake in the Monarch Green Mountain area. Hope had a large Chinese population that had come on the railroad, and Jeannot allegedly tapped into this source of cheap labor for his mines. According to one of Jeannot’s friends, he allowed these men to use the meat cooler under the hotel as a clubhouse. They gained access to this room through the small tunnel that connected it to the railroad depot, thus avoiding the most obvious entrances. This vault in the hotel is one of the few remaining sites in Hope that can be connected to the large number of Chinese living in the city.

Jeannot’s mining operations, as well as his losses in gambling, led to his unstable financial situation, which may have been one of the reasons that it took the hotel between ten and twelve years to complete. According to a source, construction was delayed for more than a year when Jeannot lost all his money in a gamble on William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Uncertain finances continued to plague Jeannot and he mortgaged and re-hooked the hotel throughout the years between 1907. and 1918, eventually losing the building in 1918. A friend paid off the debt in 1920 and ran the hotel until her death in 1968.

Today, the wood and rail era has been supplanted by tourism and manufacturing in Bonner County, and Hope and Clark Fork have become an artist colony. This is largely due to Ed Kienholz.

Born in 1927 in Fairfield, Washington. He studied in schools and colleges in the Inland Northwest. She first made a living as a nurse in a mental hospital, as a dance band manager, as a secondary car dealer, catering service, decorator, and vacuum cleaner salesman. In 1953, he moved to Los Angeles.

In 1954 he made his first wood reliefs. In 1956 he founded the NOW Gallery, and in 1957 the Ferus Gallery with Walter Hopps. In 1961 he completed his first Roxy’s vibe, which caused a stir at the documenta “4” exhibit in 1968. His retrospective at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1966 prompted the County Board of Oversight to attempt to shut down the exhibit. The theme of their environments is the vulnerability of the individual’s private life to the intervention of the environment and social convention.

In 1972 he met Nancy Reddin in Los Angeles. In 1973 he was a guest artist at the German Academic Exchange Service in Berlin. He moved to Hope with his wife Nancy, and around this time he also settled in Berlin. His most important works during this period were the Volksempfänger (radio receiver of the National Socialist period in Germany). In 1975 he received a Guggenheim Prize.

He died in 1994, but his wife, Nancy Reddin Kienholz continues as a world-renowned artist, frequently visiting Hope.

Due to its notoriety and the amazing beauty of the area, we now have more than 600 artists in our enclave.

Kienholz’s couple befriended many wealthy patrons in Berlin, and over the years, two families have also created their own family retreats on the Hope Peninsula. As you pass David Thompson Road to Kullyspell Road, the Max Factor group of houses is on your right. These go all the way to the start of the Kullyspell House ownership line. The other family is the Groenke family. Klaus Groenke is the CEO and co-owner of Trigon Holding GmbH, an international real estate company based in Berlin. He is also reported to be a leading shareholder in the Coca Cola Company and a member of the Deutsche Bank Berlin / Brandenberg regional board. They built the Groenke Estate, a 150-acre complex at the end of David Thompson Road that becomes Kienholz Road. It is here that a complete section of the Berlin Wall is found, wrapped in lexiglas, graffiti and everything intact as it was before its fall. The family recently sold half of the estate, where many multi-million dollar homes have been built or planned.

Today Hope, Idaho is a tourist and summer destination on the lake, with numerous artists and eclectic people. It is a bedroom complex for Sandpoint, and is considered by many, with its spectacular lake and mountain views, to be one of the most picturesque areas in northern Idaho. In fact, many travel magazines rated the trip along the cliffs from Sandpoint to Hope as one of the most beautiful tours in the world.
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Clark Fork Idaho History

While they are totally different cities, many in northern Idaho think of Clark Fork and Hope as a community. In fact, the two share the same Chamber of Commerce website: [http://www.poby.org/]

The city of Clark Fork also became a viable city in the early 1880s, as construction of the North Pacific Railroad continued through the nearby Bitterroot and Cabinet Mountains. This small community has been geared towards mining, logging, sawmills, agriculture, Forest Service activity, fish hatcheries, dam construction, fur harvesting activity, university studies and adolescent homes . In addition, for most of its history, the railroad maintained a station and crew at Clark Fork. Clark Fork was incorporated in 1912. Today the Clark Fork Field campus of the University of Idaho is located there.

In the 19th century, the Clark Fork Valley, like the shores of Lake Pend Oreille around Hope, was inhabited by the Flathead tribe of the Native Americans. It was explored by Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition during the 1806 return trip from the Pacific. The river is named after William Clark. A middle segment of the river in Montana was previously known as the Missoula River.

Much of Clark Fork’s history in the years that followed had to do with crossing the river. The bridge fording the Clark Fork River provided one of the only steps north, and with the steamboats that led miners on the arduous journey to the Kootenai gold rush, this was one of the only ways to travel. Before building a bridge, Clark Fork had a ferry to cross. The first ferries were nothing more than joined logs. Later, some records indicate that a ferry was operating in 1893, but this was a decade after the installation of the North Pacific line, so it is safe to assume that there was rapid business with ferry crossings during construction.

It is important to remember that the Cabinet Gorge dam was not in place at the time, and journalists at the time wrote in 1916 that “the Clarksfork River handles a much larger volume of water than the Snake River. Sometimes during the peak, the flow amounts to 94,000 cubic feet per second. The average width of the river is approximately 1,300 ft. The speed of the river at certain times is very large, approximately eight miles per hour. Because of this, it is necessarily very dangerous to operate a ferry at Clarksfork at any time and very dangerous and sometimes impossible to operate at all. ”

Certainly, this ferry crossing created a need and a place for travelers, not only to cross, but sometimes to rest, replenish supplies and occasionally take advantage of the lounge.

Until the First World War there was a lot of activity in sawmills, and to a lesser degree until the 1950s. The first sawmills include McGillis and Gibbs, Lane and Potter. From the beginning to the end of the 1950s, mining operations played an important role in the community economy. The Whitedelph mine and mill located near the Spring Creek Fish Hatchery began operating in 1926 until it closed in 1958. It produced the Galena ore analysis primarily of silver, lead and zinc. The Lawrence mine was located on Antelope Mountain near Mosquito Creek and near the University of Idaho Clark Fork Field campus. The hills and mountains of the area had numerous small mining holes manned by small operations and prospectors.
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Contributions of archeology to the Lewis and Clark trail

CONTRIBUTIONS OF ARCHEOLOGY TO THE LEWIS AND CLARK ROUTE

Archeology has faced special challenges in identifying campgrounds along the way, but has benefited from recent advances in technology. Unlike a Civil War battlefield or a visit to a historic house before the war, the expedition route produces very little physical evidence. The Lewis and Clark campsites have been difficult to validate, because the explorers left few traces. In 2004, the Lewis and Clark authors, Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives, had a grim view of the role of archeology in the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial. me

This article will paint a brighter picture by reviewing the literature to date to explore some of the relatively recent developments in route archeology. It focuses on sites in Montana, Idaho, Oregon and the Columbia River Basin and Washington at Station Camp. It will also highlight new scientific techniques used to locate the camps and explore how these findings have helped save some of these sites from destruction.
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The National Park Service has always supported archaeological research and advocated for the preservation of the trail. Their website lists the efforts of the Lewis and Clark Trail Commission, the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Inc., and other public and private organizations that have tried to locate and preserve the trail. Modern Americans can only see a few places along the way as Lewis and Clark did. The NPS website has photos that show more pristine views of many of the sites.

NPS lists sites in Montana and other states such as Site 32, Fort Mandan, and Site 34, Fort Clatsop that are archeologically relevant. ii

Sites in Montana that have had some archaeological research include:

Site 3, Lemhi Pass; Site 4, Lolo Trail; Site 14, Beaverhead Rock State Park; Site 15, Bozeman Pass; Site 16, Buffalo Jump at Arrow Creek; Site 17, Disappointment in the camp; Site 18, Union of the Marias and Missouri Rivers; Site 19, Mountain Gates; Site 20, Great Falls Portage; Site 21, Lewis and Clark Pass; Site 22, Lewis’s fight with the Blackfeet site; Site 23, Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument; Site 24, Pilar de Pompeyo; Site 25, Rattlesnake Cliffs; Site 26, Ross Hole; Site 27, Three Forks of the Missouri; and site 28, Traveler’s Rest. iii

Buffalo Jump, Traveler’s Rest, and the Lower Great Falls Portage site were particularly rewarding for archaeologists.

Buffalo Jump at Arrow Creek

In the beautiful White Cliffs section of the Missouri Breaks, members of the Lewis and Clark expedition were probably the first American citizens to view and record a buffalo jump site where dead animals were still in place. On May 29, 1805, on the journey west, the Lewis and Clark expedition encountered that leap. It was on the north side of Missouri along the base of a 120-foot-high cliff that reached almost to the edge of the water. The men observed and smelled the carcasses of more than 100 dead and rotting buffaloes, which the wolves were devouring.

The site was identified in 2463 as 24CH240 by a team from the Missouri Basin Interagency Archaeological Rescue Program, which surveyed sites in this part of the river. The rescue team found only two pieces of bone fragments, some others that the private owner had also observed. iv

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Rest of the traveler

At Traveler’s Rest, in the 1990s, aerial infrared photography showed evidence of teepee rings. Historical research matched the latitude and longitude coordinates recorded by Lewis and Clark with the same Lolo Creek location. Dan Hall and others used magnetometer equipment to find changes in the magnetic properties of soils. They also found fire-cracked rocks, coal, and a solid puddle of lead. These findings indicate that this place suffered intense heat believed to be the result of a large military-style kitchen fire. They knew that the expedition melted their empty lead powder cans to make musket balls, hence the lead puddle.

Sites in other states discussed in this article include Site 32, Fort Mandan, and Site 34, Fort Clatsop. Archaeologists later found signs that a trench had been dug about 300 feet from the fire area, in accordance with Army regulations at the time governing the location of the latrines. Tests with a mercury vaporizer confirmed the presence of mercury in the trench and not in the surrounding soil. Lewis had noted in his diary that at least two of the men were ill at the time of the trip and received medications, which contained large amounts of mercury that would pass through the body and remain at the site. v These pills, known as Dr. Rush’s Thunder Clappers, contained sixty percent mercury, which does not break down.

These discoveries were significant because this area was surrounded by a rapidly developing residential area, and the camp was designated one of the nation’s most threatened historical sites in 1999. That notoriety helped attract a grant from the Richard King Mellon Foundation, allowing the purchase of 15 acres. it is believed to be the heart of the camp. saw

Lower Portage site of the Great Falls

Also in the 1990s, at the Lower Portage site of the Great Falls of the Missouri River in Montana, Dr. Ken Karsmizki studied one of the areas, marked by the remains of 12 fires. The explorers’ diaries count the 12 days they spent in this camp. Three of the fires were found equally spaced in a line, suggesting an organized camp. The archeomagnetic dates of the charred remains are consistent with an occupation by Lewis and Clark. They also dated by radiocarbon with a broken wooden stake discovered vertically in the ground until 1810 ± 40, and site bison bones until 1810 ± 50. Members of Group C of D prepared a large quantity of dried fish, meat, and pemmican. (dried bison meat mixed with fat), while camping in Great Falls. Karsmizki added a fifth site, one he hoped would dump remnants of an iron-frame folding boat that the party abandoned at the Upper Portage of the Great Falls because they lacked the materials (pine pitch and fur sewing needles) needed to make the container is airtight. vii

Articles on camping archeology in We keep going They include the Elusive Iron Boat Search, the Yellowstone Canoe Camp, the Fort Mandan site in North Dakota, and the Search for Camp Wood / Camp Dubois, just outside of St. Louis. While the search for Iron Boat by Ken Karsmizki is fascinating and he received letters to the editor, it is too complicated for this article. Aid received at NASA’s Great Falls will be discussed later.

Yellowstone Canoe Camp is worth a visit due to recent developments. Ken Karsmizki’s article in WPOvol. 21 no. 4, “In Search of the Invisible, Some Efforts to Find Expedition Camps,” is a compelling discussion of the difficulties archaeologists have encountered up to 1995. It is also an excellent review of archeology up to that point. The lack of specific data in the notebooks, the change of course of the rivers, the historical fires and floods, poorly drawn maps and erosion, recent intrusions into the land and the unreliability of local informants were problems in all excavation sites, not to mention resources and funding.

Despite the problems encountered, the author remains optimistic that archeology will eventually take historical facts out of the realm of history and folklore and base them on material reality.viii

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Yellowstone Canoe Camp

The camp on the Yellowstone River Island is a site being investigated as the possible site of Clark’s July 1806 canoe camp. Archaeologist Tom Rust began researching the island in 2011 when historian and cartographer Ralph Saunders convinced Rust that he had located the site of the canoe. His study of the original maps, historical surveys, and aerial photographs assured him that his calculations had found the site, although eight other sites had been considered for the camp along a 12-mile stretch of the river between Columbus and Park City.

Rust investigated the island with a magnetometer and soil resistance meter to assess disturbances and soil compaction. The hope was that the survey could reveal old campfire sites, a latrine, a butchery area, and even crowded roads as the men moved through the camp. Their efforts were rewarded when they had multiple hits from metal detectors and found a perfectly round lead ball believed to be shot. The isotope analysis matched an artifact from Traveler’s Rest. They also found mercury deposits in latrine pits, which matched what had been found at Traveler’s Rest. A belt buckle and bone discovered in the same area at the same depth and some lead next to what looked like a fire pit, tested to an acceptable date range, were further evidence that it was the Camp. from Canoas.

This site is environmentally interesting because the Yellowstone River had moved considerably. Fortunately, when the river moved, even forming a new channel and then jumping again, the island appears to have been spared from damaging floods that could have erased any evidence of the expedition. ix

Cougar Rapids Bar

On their way back home in May 1806, the Lewis and Clark expedition camped near Kamiah expecting the snow to melt in the Bitterroot Mountains. Meriwether Lewis sent Sergeant John Ordway and two other men to the Snake River on this route to exchange salmon with the Nez Perce, food needed to cross the mountain. Ordway wrote about the side trip in his diaries. “We passed a large cabin and descended through the worst hills we ever saw on a road,” reads the newspapers. And upon their arrival in the village, “At last they invited us, spread out robes for us to sit on, and put roasted salmon in front of us and some of their white bread they called ‘uppah’. This cabin is one hundred feet long and twenty feet long. wide and all in one. ”

State archaeologist Dr. Ken Reid of the Idaho State Historical Society led the project to investigate a site at Cougar Rapids Bar. They found the depression in the cabin and the slope where they were probably waiting while the fish were prepared. Using high-tech instruments to look below the surface, Dr. Reid’s team traced the edge of the multi-family home and the homes, or chimneys, running through the middle. Dr. Reid and his team dug small test pits in the home and the raised mound to the side of the house, and found carbon artifacts dating back to the early 1800s. They also found half a blue glass bead, two brass studs, and a small arrowhead. This evidence combined with the descriptions of the village in Ordway’s journal, plus other research on possible routes to the Snake River, make Dr. Reid very sure that this is where Ordway and his men spent two nights exchanging salmon. . X

The Rock Fort and Station Camp sites, and Fort Clatsop on the west side of the trail have also had new developments. Karsmizki’s proven methodology is a lengthy process of map and log analysis, geophysical survey and interpretation, test excavation, and, if warranted, extensive excavation and laboratory analysis. This analysis includes dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating, archeomagnetic dating, lead isotope analysis, and fauna analysis at numerous laboratories in the United States and Canada. NASA and the United States Air Force have assisted in this search.

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Rock fort

In an interview with an Oregon journalist, John Compton, in July 2010, Ken Karsmizki spoke about his research at Rock Fort and NASA’s help with the project. He pointed out that the Discovery Corps’ latitude calculations were not accurate, and that maps of the same area were different. He said: “They (C de D) wrote about a million words in their newspapers, but nine journalists would see things in different ways, especially at distances. People changed their minds halfway about the environmental characteristics The same thing happened everywhere. ” Karsmizki had to see the progression of the maps and look at the details. NASA offered to help with four satellites to use sensors to map The Dalles now, which they could overlay on Lewis and Clark’s map. What coincided was Mill Creek and the bank of the Columbia River. They then used ground penetrating radar and put thirty-six holes in a grid in the area they believed to be the site. When nothing was found, they shifted their efforts to three depressions, because Clark had written that they were in an artificial fort built by rock walls and feared the attack. The area was excavated and had seven feet of fill on top of the historic surface. They were even able to find a dog skull and leather straps.

Unfortunately, the Columbia River has only one site, Rock Fort, which is now not underwater due to dams. It is located in The Dalles, near the Union Street underpass and is in public hands. It was a good location because it had no buildings, and the infill cover may have preserved it for excavation. xi

NASA combined precision satellite imagery with detailed historical maps to help Karsmizki locate camps. In some cases, technology can reduce a potential excavation site from several square miles to a matter of acres. NASA’s Directorate of Earth Science Applications provided the images to Karsmizki and his team. Marco Giardino, acting deputy director of ESAD at Stennis, said NASA scientists could create a 360-degree view of the area where explorers were traveling and archaeologists could get the same view they would have from an airplane. Color is extremely important in locating historical sites. For example, a slight difference in the shade of wheat in a large field may indicate the location of an outpost. xii

Station Camp Fort Vancouver

The Lewis and Clark Discovery Corps spent just 10 days here in 1805. Historians called the site “Station Camp” because it was Lieutenant William Clark’s main reconnaissance station to produce a detailed and accurate map of the mouth of the river. Columbia and surrounding areas. Dr. Wilson, as Principal Investigator, incorporated a variety of scientific techniques into the research design to establish site chronology and obtain additional data on artifacts, including carbon-14 dating, ground penetration radar, analysis of magnetometer and isotope analysis. Dr. Wilson is an archaeologist with the Western Pacific Regional Office of the National Park Service, based at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. It was also the primary link to Native American tribes that have ancient claims to the Middle Village site. He received the John Cotter Prize for his work. John Cotter was one of the founding fathers of historical archeology in the United States. xiii

His work was environmentally significant to the trail because his research was the foundation for the park’s interpretive developments at Station Camp / Middle Villages and a project that involved the Chinook Nation, Washington State, and the National Park Service. It also involved students and the public, thereby increasing awareness of the importance of the site to history.

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Fort Clatsop

Fort Clatsop, near the Columbia River, about five miles south of present-day Astoria, was the 33-member 1805 Discovery Corps winter camp and the first physical evidence of the US on the Pacific coast according to Stephen Beckham, a historian at Lewis and Clark College. The fort became critical to American claims in the region.

Occupied for just over three months, the original fort probably burned down in the 1850s to make way for a pioneer’s garden. In 1955, the local community built a replica of Fort Clatsop (named after a local tribe) to celebrate the expedition’s 150th anniversary. In 2005, Fort Clatsop burned the ground again just a month before the Lewis and Clark bicentennial celebrations began at the site.

A federal arson investigation found that the rebuilt Fort Clatsop was the victim of an accidental fire started by a lost ember in a functioning home. Investigators can be forgiven for momentarily considering archaeologists as suspects. Although some excavations were conducted at the camp site in the 1950s, the destruction of the replica has now given National Park Service archaeologist Doug Wilson the opportunity to properly excavate the site using modern methods, including remote sensing. Its crew has already identified around 20 percent of the site undisturbed by the concrete foundations of the rebuilt fort, including several deep coal-filled wells, possible remains of holes dug for the fort’s stockade. “We turned this tragedy into a real opportunity,” says Wilson. xiv

NASA was also involved with this site. Satellite data included the 30-meter Landsat thematic Mapper and IKONOS data from 1-meter space imagery xv

NASA changing the face of the West and archaeological research

The goal of NASA scientists and other researchers working on a special project for the bicentennial was to collect remote sensing images from satellites and aircraft to create accurate three-dimensional maps and visualizations of the Lewis and Clark camps and camping pitches and produce Una collection of satellite images available on the Internet. In addition to archaeological investigations, landscape management objectives include evaluating the effects of forest fire disturbance regimes on ecosystems, monitoring wetland change, measuring urban sprawl, tracking noxious and invasive weeds, and mapping vegetative mosaics to Lewis and Clark key camps such as Fort Clatsop (winter 1805-1806).

The trail project was developed through a NASA Space Law Agreement, involving the talents of GCS Research, a geospatial information technology company in Missoula, Montana and the TechLink Center at Montana State University (MSU) . “The lasting value of the Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery expedition is in the diaries and maps they created. They represent a snapshot of the natural history of North America two hundred years ago. NASA’s remote sensing data sets represent another snapshot in time, “said Weston, Technology Manager at the MSU TechLink Center. xvi

In 2003, NASA, GCS Research and their technology partners were building the first phase of the Lewis and Clark Geosystem, which includes a combined asset remote sensing geodatabase of a variety of existing geospatial resources for the Lewis and Clark Trail. DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird images were included in Lewis and Clark’s raster catalog. xvii

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Another product developed during the Lewis and Clark project was the virtual and accurate representation of various Corps of Discovery historical sites, especially Fort Clatsop. These virtual products enhanced scientific research and served to educate and inform the public about the project and its results. Upon completion of the project, thirty different NASA remote sensing data sets were processed. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archaeological discoveries. Hyperspectral images divide the spectrum into many more bands than the human eye can detect. The objective of hyperspectral images is to obtain the spectrum for each pixel in the image of a scene, in order to find objects, identify materials or detect processes.

Remote sensing technology and image analysis are undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to the detection, identification, and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic.

These new technologies offer archaeologists even more opportunities for research and analysis. One possible area where hyperspectral data can be very valuable is phytoarcheology, which is defined as the analysis of the relationship between vegetation and archeology. Three specific areas of phytoarcheology can greatly benefit from hyperspectral imaging:

1) Identification of specific plant species that are associated with archaeological sites;

2) comparative plant physiology or determination of plant stress or vigor; and

3) Creation of a vegetation variability index.xviii

Travelers who follow the Corps of Discoveries are seeking the experience. Fresonke and Spence in Lewis and Clark, Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives put it perfectly. “They are not reaching a single tourist destination; instead, they are encountering a whole new landscape that is not visible from jets or four-lane highways … Following the Captains route is a personal journey of discovery, a tourist odyssey that unites landscape and history as described by Lewis and Clark magazines “.xix

Now, many years later, the trail is once again appreciated for the beauty and wonder Lewis and Clark saw on it. As Ken Karsmizki expected in his 1995 article for We Proceeded On, archaeological research has played an important role in preserving the trail by identifying the camps and providing scientific evidence of their material existence. Archaeologists have not only advanced in the profession of historical archeology with the help of recent technology and NASA, but have also helped the National Park Service and many other public and private organizations to reclaim the way for future generations of explorers. of trails.

I Kris Fresonke and Mark Spence, Lewis and Clark, Legacies, Memories, and New Perspectives, (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2004) 247.

ii Lewis and Clark, Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, National Park Service http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/lewisandclark/site.htm

iii Montana Archeology: A Public Book Project on Montana, Lewis and Clark Archeology and Archeology, February 7, 2009. (Source: Dr. Dee Taylor Readings; Vol. 3, No. 2 Archeology in Montana ” Brief history of Montana Archeology, “)

iv Ibid.

v Kathleen A. Dahl, “The Archeology of Traveler’s Rest,” Trail Watch, an academic blog exploring the interpretation of the Lewis and Clark expedition and bicentennial in museums, historical sites, interpretation centers, and popular media.

I saw Sherry Devlin, “Investigators pinpoint the exact location of the traveler’s rest – Camp Lewis and Clark was incorrectly mapped years ago,” Missoulian, January 26, 2004.

vii Jessica E. Saraceni, “Finding Lewis and Clark”, Archeology 51 no. 1, (January / February 1998)

page 7

viii Kenneth W. Karsmizki, “In Search of the Invisible: Some Efforts to Find Expedition Camps,” continued on 21, no. 4 (November 1995): 4-12.

ix Brett French, “Evidence Constructs Yellowstone Island was Clark’s 1806 Canoe Camp”, Billings Gazette, April 27, 2014. ind. .

xi Kenneth W. Karsmizki, “Lewis and Clark Rock Fort”, Localite (part 3 of 3) July 2010.

xii “NASA satellite will search for Lewis and Clark stops”, USA Today Health and Science, 09/20/2001

xiii “Dr. Wilson Receives the 2011 Cotter Award”, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, April 4, 2011, http://www.nps.gov/fova/learn/news/cotteraward2011.htm

xiv “Insider: Fortunate Fire”, Archeology 59 no. 1, (January / February 2006)

xv Kenneth W. Karsmizki, Joe Spruce, Marco Giardino, “Archaeological Remote Sensing: Searching for Fort Clatsop from Space” July 30, 2002, NASA Technical Report Server.

xvi Leonard David, “Lewis & Clark Revisited: Satellite Archeology Excavates The Past”, GeoCommunity, January 2002,

xvii Alex Philip, “GCS Research and DigitalGlobe Partner at Lewis and Clark Geosystem Project”, Directions Magazine, April 23, 2003.

xviii Marco J. Giardino, “A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archeology,” Journal of Archaeological Science, 38 (2011) 2003-2009.

xix Fresonke and Spence, 240.

Possible images that could be included in various points of the article.

Landsat 5 and historic aerial photography in black and white with the Lewis and Clark trail line. The combination of images shows changes in the Missouri River near the Desoto National Wildlife Refuge north of Omaha. IMAGE CREDIT: GCS Research

One of the first existing photographs of Rainbow Falls, which was the second highest only after Great Falls in the series of five in this part of the river. This view captures the untamed aspect of the country, as it must have appeared in 1805-6. (Montana Historical Society).

This photo of Rainbow Falls, taken in 1944, contrasts sharply with the one above. Just upriver from the falls is the Montana Power Company Dam. In the summer and dry months of the year, much less water falls on the falls than shown here, and large portions of the rocky ledge of the falls are bare and devoid of the beauty of the falling white water. (Montana Power Company (1944)).

When Ryan Dam releases little water, deep down, the Great Falls shrink to a trickle. (National Park Service (Appleman, 1964).)

Lewis and Clark, Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, National Park Service

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The Chronicles of Madness – Episode 6

In this, our sixth episode of Madness Chronicles, we will see the climate crisis through the lens of insanity. As we do this, remember that insanity is a state of mental illness, especially extremely foolish and extremely foolish behavior, and a state of frenetic or chaotic activity. Let’s take a look at our world today, about to melt from climate change.
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In Madrid, Spain, the UN held COP 25, a climate conference that brought together more than 30,000 people from around the world. And guess what? They flew in private and commercial jets to tell us not to travel on private planes. They pollute the environment. That strikes me as extremely silly behavior. New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, who has spent a fortune on environmental causes, struggled to differentiate between right and wrong gases.
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Wants to be President Nancy Pelosi took 14 Democrats with her to COP 25 at the UN. In his comments, he said: “By coming here we want to tell everyone, we are still in,” Pelosi said at a press conference in the Spanish capital, according to Politico. “The United States is still in.” I am not a lawyer (thank you. God), but she seems to be a US citizen who interferes in foreign affairs. But she’s a Democrat, so she gets a pass.
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Greta Thunberg, of course, appeared with the bells in Madrid. Here is a small part of what he said: “” That action must be powerful and powerful. After all, the climate crisis is not just about the environment. It is a crisis of human rights, justice and political will. Colonial, racist and patriarchal systems of oppression have created and nurtured it. We need to dismantle them all. Our political leaders can no longer shirk their responsibilities. “She went on to say, ‘Schoolchildren are leading the way.’
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At that point, it would be good to point out a small example of school-age children leading the way. I live about 80 miles north of the Missoula People’s Republic. Home to the University of Montana or as we like to call it ‘Berkeley North’.
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Some people at a Missoula high school told us what their children went through during the highly organized week of climate protest. Teachers informed all students that they were free to go and protest and that they would not be mugged for skipping school, nor would their grades suffer as a result. One of the parents’ daughters decided not to participate and has been paying for it ever since. Her teachers were not happy with her. School children leading the way? Barely. Madness. You gamble!
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In a madness that left Scandinavia, home of Greta, Ole Waever, a well-known professor of international relations at the University of Copenhagen, surprised everyone. He recently told ABC News in Australia that the United Nations can resort to military action against states that defy its mandates on global climate action.
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He said the UN will not tolerate ‘climate inaction’ and, according to Ole Wæver, a prominent professor of international relations at the University of Copenhagen, is considering other means to ensure that its goals are met, even if it leads to global armed conflict. . Pretty serious stuff for a team that depends on the United States for most of its money and its base of operations.
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Do you realize that Dr. Patrick Moore, one of the founding members of Greenpeace, the original organization that sells insanity, doesn’t even support the theories behind man-made climate change?
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I hope you have a good start to the New Year and until next time … have fun, enjoy life and watch out for the madness between us.
Like many other turbulent economies in today’s financial arena, countries such as Venezuela and Zimbabwe have begun to “use cryptocurrency as a means of fighting controversy, corruption and a debt-ridden economy,” Antonopul said.
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In May of this year, Bitcoin.com reported that “Greek women’s interest in cryptocurrency has increased by 163.67 percent.”!

In this particular study, this was the highest percentage in Europe. The number of Bitcoin ATMs in Greece also rose to at least five across the country.

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University of Montana, Missoula: Five Tips for Traveling to Missoula by Train and Amtrak Bus

Missoula, Montana is the second largest city in the state and one of the most picturesque metropolitan areas in the country. The University of Montana provides an academic and cultural anchor for this western Montana city. Unfortunately, Missoula lost its Amtrak service in 1979, and the only low-cost airline to the city flies directly to the southwest.
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For UM students and other Missoula area residents, using a combination of Amtrak and buses is the cheapest way to travel to other parts of the country. Here are five tips / suggestions for effectively traveling to / from Missoula by land:
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One: If you’re heading west to Missoula, ignore Amtrak’s recommendation to connect with the train at Whitefish. According to Amtrak’s schedule for the Empire Builder that runs between Chicago and Seattle / Portland, there is an indication that connecting service is available between Whitefish, MT and Missoula. Rimrock Stages, which is part of the Trailways system, provides the service. Unfortunately, Rimrock’s schedule doesn’t work well with Amtrak’s westbound schedule.
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Whitefish’s only bus leaves at 11:35 a.m. and reaches Missoula approximately 3 and a half hours later. That works well if you come from Washington state or Idaho and the train arrives at Whitefish at 7:26 am. Not convenient if you are coming from the east and the train arrives at Whitefish at 9:16 pm. You will have to find a hotel before taking the bus home the next day.
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Two: If you’re from Missoula, you shouldn’t connect to Amtrak on Whitefish in any case. The only Rimrock bus from Missoula leaves at 8:00 a.m. and arrives at Whitefish around 11:25 a.m. You’ve already missed the Empire Builder train heading east for the day. The westbound train will leave Whitefish about 10 hours later, a long wait!
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Three: The best way to connect to Amtrak from Missoula is through Spokane, Washington. Greyhound Lines has convenient hours that work well with Amtrak’s. Part of the beauty of the connection through Spokane is that trains arrive and depart early in the morning from both directions. Therefore, if you are going to Missoula, your train will arrive in Spokane no later than 2:00 a.m. You can take the Greyhound bus at 5:05 a.m. and arrive in Missoula at 10:30 a.m. From Missoula, there is a bus at 9:10 pm that arrives in Spokane at 12:35 am. The first train leaves Spokane at 1:15 a.m.
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Four: Getting connected in Spokane is easy as Greyhound uses the Spokane train station as a repository. Since the connections take place in the middle of the night, this is very convenient.
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Five: The Empire Builder is a fully booked train. Whether you experience Amtrak’s upgraded coach service with in-seat dining and large pillows or Superliner sleeping accommodation, you need to make advance reservations. By purchasing your tickets in advance for Amtrak and Greyhound services, you may be able to receive discounted advance purchase rates or special rates for students and seniors.
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